Liberty Enlightening the World

Liberty Enlightening the World
La Liberté éclairant le monde

Tuesday 31 May 2011

Apple Drawings

 Interpret an Apple 50 Ways

In this activity, draw 50 variations of "apple".
Carefully consider the various graphic design elements and principles – including cropping, symmetry, spatial relationship, negative space, texture, scale and color.
Select what you consider is your best apple and draw it in the large rectangle below the thumbnails.
Consider all techniques and approaches in solving this problem. There are no limitations on the use of color.


The 50 Apples Project encourages playing, experimentation and hard mental gymnastics. At the same time, the problem teaches endurance and resourcefulness – the requirement of trying to develop so many ideas can be exhausting! This is the critical point in the assignment, when attention tends to wander and impatience begins to set in.
Note: Selecting a successful solution from a large number of choices is in itself a very important aspect of the design process. Self-editing is a critical skill that requires the ability to be objective and see the material from someone Else's perspective. Good editing skills reinforce good problem-solving skills, and vice versa. 

White-Space Space

 Learning Activity with White space

Find 3 examples where white-space has been used effectively in
  1. Print-publishing (magazines/ newspapers)
  2. Street advertising (billboards/ shop-frontage)
  3. Your choice
Take a photo of each. Caption each photo with an explanation where you think the white space is:

The white-space forms the shepherd.

The white space here forms the letter P which stands for Australia Post.


The white-space here shows a local community of faces.

This lesson demonstrated how space can convey meaning as well as the artwork.

Wednesday 18 May 2011

Negative Space and White Space

Introduction to Negative Space and White Space

Up to this point we've been developing artwork by drawing the primary shape. Be on a focus on the shape defined by pen or pencil. What about the area that doesn't have any artwork on it?

Negative Space:  
Negative Space is the space unoccupied by artwork either inside or outside the artwork.

White space:
White-space, like negative space, is the area unoccupied by artwork but it's bigger than negative space and doesn't carry any further meaning. It's more of a place to rest your eyes or provide a mechanism to focus user's attention elsewhere on the design. It also isn't necessarily white. It could be black. Or textured.

White-space is a highly-valued tool by designers.

 The concept of creating a design by emphasizing its background changes our natural approach to seeing.

When we are led to focus on the background the unmarked portion of the page (the white ground) becomes transformed into a recognizable subject.

Our traditional image making process is thereby reversed, with a greater emphasis on composition, positive–negative relationships and framal reference (i.e. the "box).


Tuesday 17 May 2011

Design Using Shape

 and Spatial Relationships

(Either solid black or outlined squares ), create an image to express the meaning of each of the following six words:



To use two dimensional design principles to explore, experiment, develop and extend your graphic vocabulary. These principles include framal reference (relation between the objects and the frame or ground), contrasts of scale, cropping, overlapping, touching, illusion of space, dynamics and stability.


Monday 16 May 2011











 Norma Jeane Mortenson; June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962



 Content Central Blog: Google and paid content


Wednesday 11 May 2011


 Webdesign Terminology

Anti-aliasing: In digital signal processing, anti-aliasing is the technique of minimizing the distortion artifacts known as aliasing when representing a high-resolution signal at a lower resolution. Anti-aliasing is used in digital photography, computer graphics, digital audio, and many other applications.

ASCII: American Standard Code for Information Interchange: (computer science) a code for information exchange between computers made by different companies; a string of 7 binary digits represents each character; used in most microcomputers.

Authoring Software: Refers to software that enables the creation of multimedia or hypertext documents and presentations.

AVI: Audio Video Interleave, known by its acronym AVI, is a multimedia container format introduced by Microsoft in November 1992 as part of its Video for Windows technology. AVI files can contain both audio and video data in a file container that allows synchronous audio-with-video playback. An AVI is a sound and motion picture file that conforms to the Microsoft Windows Resource Interchange File Format (RIFF) specification. AVI files (which end with an .avi extension) require a special player that may be included with your Web browser.

Bandwidth: a data transmission rate; the maximum amount of information (bits/second) that can be transmitted along a channel. In computer networking and computer science, bandwidth, digital bandwidth, or network bandwidth is a measure of available or consumed data communication resources expressed in bit/s or multiples of it (kbit/s, Mbit/s etc).

Batch Processing: the serial execution of computer programs, The authorization of transactions offline when immediate approval is not required. Transactions are collected in a batch and sent as one transmission for authorization and/or settlement. Batch processing is generally used with mail/telephone order transactions.

FTP: use the file transfer protocol to transfer data from one computer to another; "You can FTP these data"
file transfer protocol: protocol that allows users to copy files between their local system and any system they can reach on the network. The series of rules that govern "uploading" and "downloading" files from a server. These files can not usually be viewed by the browser software, but will be saved to your hard drive to open or translate later. Current browsers integrate FTP into their software, or you may use a stand alone program.

Gamut: In color reproduction, including computer graphics and photography, the gamut, or color gamut , is a certain complete subset of colors. This means every colour combination that is possible to produce with a given set of colourants on a given device or system.

GIF: The Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) is a bitmap image format that was introduced by CompuServe in 1987 and has since come into widespread usage on the World Wide Web due to its wide support and portability.

Gradient: In vector calculus, the gradient of a scalar field is a vector field which points in the direction of the greatest rate of increase of the scalar field, and whose magnitude is the greatest rate of change. a graded change in the magnitude of some physical quantity or dimension.

GUI: graphical user interface: a user interface based on graphics (icons and pictures and menus) instead of text; uses a mouse as well as a keyboard as an input device.

HTML: HTML, which stands for HyperText Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. It provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists etc as well as for links, quotes, and other items.

Bitmap: In computer graphics, a bitmap or pixmap is a type of memory organization or image file format used to store digital images. The term bitmap comes from the computer programming terminology, meaning just a map of bits, a spatially mapped array of bits.

BMP: The BMP file format, sometimes called bitmap or DIB file format (for device-independent bitmap), is an image file format used to store bitmap digital images, especially on Microsoft Windows and OS/2 operating systems.

Browser: A web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and may be a web page, image, video, or other piece of content/a viewer who looks around casually without seeking anything in particular /a program used to view HTML documents.

Cache: In computer science, a cache ( ) is a component that improves performance by transparently storing data such that future requests for that data can be served faster.

Chroma: The aspect of a color's hue that depends on the amount of white or black in it; saturation.

CGI: The Common Gateway Interface (CGI) is a standard protocol that defines how webserver software can delegate the generation of webpages to a console application. Such applications are known as CGI scripts; they can be written in any programming language, although scripting languages are often used.

CYMK: The CMYK color model (process color, four color) is a subtractive color model, used in color printing, and is also used to describe the printing process itself. CMYK refers to the four inks used in some color printing: cyan, magenta, yellow, and key black.

Hyperlink: a link from a hypertext file to another location or file; typically activated by clicking on a highlighted word or icon at a particular location on the screen. In computing, a hyperlink (or link) is a reference to a document that the reader can directly follow, or that is followed automatically. The reference points to a whole document or to a specific element within a document. Hypertext is text with hyperlinks.

Hypermedia: Hypermedia is used as a logical extension of the term hypertext in which graphics, audio, video, plain text and hyperlinks intertwine to create a generally non-linear medium of information. The use of text, data, graphics, audio and video as elements of an extended hypertext system in which all elements are linked so that the user can move between them at will.

Interface: a program that controls a display for the user (usually on a computer monitor) and that allows the user to interact with the system.

Java: Java refers to a number of proprietary computer software products and specifications from Sun Microsystems, a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation, that together provide a system for developing application software and deploying it in a cross-platform environment. a platform-independent object-oriented programming language.

Javascript: JavaScript is an object-oriented scripting language used to enable programmatic access to objects within both the client application and other applications.
JPEG: In computing, JPEG (named after the Joint Photographic Experts Group who created the standard) is a commonly used method of lossy compression for photographic images. The degree of compression can be adjusted, allowing a selectable tradeoff between storage size and image quality.

Jquery: Jquery is a lightweight cross-browser JavaScript library that emphasizes interaction between JavaScript and HTML. It was released in January 2006 at BarCamp NYC by John Resig. Used by over 27% of the 10,000 most visited websites, jQuery is the most popular JavaScript library in use today. JQuery is a fast and concise JavaScript library which simplifies the creation of animations, communications to server requests, document transversing and event handling .

Codec: A codec is a device or computer program capable of encoding and/or decoding a digital data stream or signal. The word codec is a portmanteau (a blending of two or more words) of 'compressor-decompressor' or, more commonly, 'coder-decoder'.

CSS: Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a style sheet language used to describe the presentation semantics (that is, the look and formatting) of a document written in a markup language.

Database: A database is a collection of data for one or more multiple uses. One way of classifying databases involves the type of content, for example: bibliographic, full-text, numeric, image. Other classification methods start from examining database models or database architectures.A collection of (usually) organized information in a regular structure, usually but not necessarily in a machine-readable format accessible by a computer; A software program for storing, retrieving and manipulating a database(1); A combination of (1) and (2).

Data Compression: In computer science and information theory, data compression or source coding is the process of encoding information using fewer bits (or other information-bearing units) than an unencoded representation would use, through use of specific encoding schemes.

Dithering: the process of representing intermediate colors by patterns of tiny colored dots that simulate the desired color .Dither is an intentionally applied form of noise used to randomize quantization error, preventing large-scale patterns such as "banding" (stepwise rendering of smooth gradations in brightness or hue) in images, or noise at discrete frequencies in an audio recording, that are more objectionable.

DPI: dots per inch . Resolution that varies across media. For print, image files are optimized at 300 DPI. For the Web (GIF and JPEG file formats), files are optimized at 72 DPI, the number of pixels across one inch of most monitors .

Flatten (image):Compress the size to being smaller on webpages and browsers.

LAN: A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a small physical area, like a home, office, or small group of buildings, such as a school, or an airport.
Leading: In typography, leading (, rhymes with heading) refers to the amount of added vertical spacing between lines of type.

Marquee: The marquee tag is a non-standard HTML element which causes text to scroll up, down, left or right automatically.

Metadata: Metadata (meta data, meta-data, or sometimes metainformation) is “data about data.” The use of metadata is an emerging practice with close ties to information management, information science, information technology, librarianship and GIS.

MPEG: A computer file (as of a movie) in an MPEG format; Moving Pictures Experts Group; Any of a group of computer file formats for the compression and storage of digital video and audio data .

Multimedia: transmission that combine media of communication (text and graphics and sound etc.)

MySQL: Pronounced “my ess cue el”, MySQL is an open source relational database management system. It is largely SQL-compliant and runs on a wide variety of operating systems. MySQL forms one of the bases for the popular LAMP server configuration, Linux Apache MySQL PHP/Perl/Python.

Peripheral: A peripheral is a device attached to a host computer but not part of it whose primary functionality is dependent upon the host, and can therefore be considered as expanding the host's capabilities, while not forming part of the system's core architecture.

PICT: PICT is a graphics file format introduced on the original Apple Macintosh computer as its standard metafile format. It allows the interchange of graphics (both bitmapped and vector), and some limited text support, between Mac applications, and was the native graphics format of QuickDraw.

Pixel: In digital imaging, a pixel (or picture element) is a single point in a raster image. The pixel is the smallest addressable screen element, it is the smallest unit of picture which can be controlled. Each pixel has its own address. The address of a pixel corresponds to its coordinates.

PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (the name is a recursive acronym) is a widely used, general-purpose scripting language that was originally designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages.

PNG: Portable Network Graphics (PNG) is a bitmapped image format that employs lossless data compression. PNG was created to improve upon and replace GIF (Graphics Interchange Format) as an image-file format not requiring a patent license. It is or spelled out as P-N-G.

Opacity: Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light. In radiative transfer, it describes the absorption and scattering of radiation in a medium, such as a plasma, dielectric, shielding material, glass, etc.

PDF: Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for document exchange. PDF is used for representing two-dimensional documents in a manner independent of the application software, hardware, and operating system.Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Resolution: the number of pixels per square inch on a computer-generated display; the greater the resolution, the better the picture.

RGB: The RGB color model is an additive color model in which red, green, and blue light are added together in various ways to reproduce a broad array of colors. The name of the model comes from the initials of the three additive primary colors, red, green, and blue.

Saturation: In colorimetry and color theory, colorfulness, chroma, and saturation are related but distinct concepts referring to the perceived intensity of a specific color. Colorfulness is the difference between a color against gray.

Thumbnail: Thumbnails are reduced-size versions of pictures, used to help in recognizing and organizing them, serving the same role for images as a normal text index does for words.

Transparency: In the field of optics, transparency (also called pellucidity or diaphaneity) is the physical property of allowing light to pass through a material; translucency (also called translucence or translucidity) only allows light to pass through diffusely. The opposite property is opacity.

PPI: Pixels per inch is part of how you would define the resolution of an object that is screen-based. Some use DPI and PPI interchangeably, though this is technically incorrect.
Primary Colours: In printing - yellow, magenta and cyan (subtractive primaries). In light - red, green and blue (additive primaries).

PSD: Adobe Photoshop, or simply Photoshop, is a graphics editing program developed and published by Adobe Systems. It is the current market leader for commercial bitmap and image manipulation software, and is the flagship product of Adobe Systems.

Quality control: Quality control is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production.

Raster Image: In computer graphics, a raster graphics image or bitmap is a data structure representing a generally rectangular grid of pixels, or points of color, viewable via a monitor, paper, or other display medium.

XHTML:  (Extensible Hypertext Markup Language) is a family of XML markup languages that mirror or extend versions of the widely used Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), the language in which web pages are written.

UI: User Interface. It is the graphic design and appearance of a website, its function as seen and used by the person on the user end, at the website in a browser. The UI of a website is ultimately how it lets users know what it has to offer them.

URL: the address of a web page on the world wide web. n computing, a Uniform Resource Locator (URL) is a subset of the Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that specifies where an identified resource is available and the mechanism for retrieving it.

Value (colour): fix or determine the value of; assign a value to, RGB and Hexadecimal Color Codes
Colors are made up of 3 sets of RGB numbers representing the amount of Red, Green and Blue contained within a color. These colors are represented as hexadecimal values.

For example, the hexadecimal numbers for black is #000000. The first two numbers (00) represent the amount of red the color contains. The second two numbers (00) represent the amount of green and the last two numbers (00) represent the amount of blue the color contains. When a color, such as black, contains 00 amount of red, green or blue, this means it contains no amount of that color or 0%.

However, colors containing RGB values of FF contain the most amount of a color or 100%. For example, the hexadecimal value for white is #FFFFFF, which means it contains the most amount of red, green and blue.

The hexadecimal numbers for red are FF0000. To help you to understand this a little bit better, if we break down the hexadecimal numbers, we will find that the color red contains FF amount of red, which is the highest amount. It contains 00 amount of green and 00 amount of blue, both of which are the lowest.

Vector: A vector based graphic is described in terms of lines and shapes, not in terms of dots. These files scale better than bit-mapped images.

WYSIWYG: is an acronym for What You See Is What You Get. The term is used in computing to describe a system in which content displayed during editing appears very similar to the final output, which might be a printed document, web page, slide presentation or even the lighting for a theatrical.
XML: Extensible Markup Language; a flexible text format for creating structured computer documents.

Tuesday 10 May 2011

Design Principles


Identifying Elements & Principles

Proximity (where objects get close to each other and suggest association)
Balance (where objects "balance each other out", suggesting stability)
Rhythm (also know as repetition)
Flow (see Gutenburg's where the eye carves a path across your layout)
Unity (a layout/design/ publication has a common colour/ typeface/ layout/ alignment)
Movement (where objects in a layout appear to be in motion; falling/ colliding/ pushing)
Contrast (colour, scale, style)
Design Elements: The building blocks
In the context of design, elements provide a common language for designers & artists. They are the smallest/ most fundamental concepts that define what we see in a layout. The following definitions are based on Wucius Wong's book: "Principles of 2-dimensional design".

Conceptual Elements

The point is the simplest element of visual design. It is infinitely small and radiates from the centre just like the sun. It indicates position.

In a typical design the point could be represented by a face that stands-out in a photo or artwork that sits alone surrounded by white space.

Line is defined by 2 or more points. Straight or curved. Infinitely thin. It indicates direction and position. In a typical design, the line could be formed by text columns or by the header or footer. Eye-lines in photos of people are a fairly common representation of "line".

Plane is a "line in motion". As a line "sweeps" it defines a plane. A plane has length and breadth but no thickness. Picture frames, pull-quotes, columns etc. all are representations of a plane. The blue-panel you're looking at is a plane.

Volume is the path of a plane in motion. In 2-dimensional design it is an illusion (portrayed by using perspective/vanishing points or in isometric form). Usually found in building illustrations/ 3d maps, artwork with extrusions, anything that explores the illusion of depth on a page or screen.

Visual Elements
When the conceptual elements are portrayed on the page or screen they might be done in pencil, ink, whiteboard marker on a whiteboard, finger in the sand, Tyre marks at the drag strip or pixels on a screen.

When this happens the visual element adopts further properties such as:

Any conceptual element that is drawn now has a shape.

Similarly any element drawn would have a size which is measurable and can have a scale relative to the elements around it.

Any element drawn would now have a colour. In this case it's red then green then blue.

Any element drawn would have a texture derived from the substrate (paper, LCD screen, sand, concrete etc) or the pencil, ink, paint used to draw it.

Relational Elements
These describe the inter-relationships between shapes in a design. Some are suggested, like direction and position and some are felt like gravity and space.

The direction of an object is determined by its relationship to other objects, how it relates to the viewer and how it interacts with the framal reference (the container, e.g. the page or screen)

An object's position is determined by where it sits in relation to the framal reference.

A shape takes up space. Absence of shape liberates space and can be useful in focusing attention to other parts of the design. White space is a designer's best friend and an editor's enemy.

Implied by the relationship between shapes and the relationship to the framal reference.

Tension & Tension Point
When objects get close to each other they create "tension". Generally to be avoided but can be used to good effect to imply chaos or inbalance.

Experienced designers often use tension in this deliberate way. Inexperienced designers arrive at this by accident. Tension points if used poorly create distractions and affect the layout hierarchy.

Monday 9 May 2011




Focus (also referred to as "dominance" or "emphasis") means that the objects on the page do not compete with each other for your attention (like a stamp album), there will be one item that has more emphasis than the others thus ensuring clarity & effectiveness of communication.

A typical stamp album places equal emphasis on all items. The viewer doesn't know where to look for the information; nothing stands out except for the top-left to bottom-right eye-flow convention.

Generally, avoid the stamp-album metaphor in your layouts.

(This is, of course, a design compromise; a stamp album needs to hold lots of stamps; it doesn't need to adhere to design fundamentals, it's chief purpose is NOT to communicate or advertise).

Here's a great example of "focus":

The product shot of the beer bottle places emphasis on it by virtue of its central position in the shot as well as the bottle's image clarity relative to the surroundings. This is referred to as a "hero shot". It's called a hero shot because early pulp-fiction would often portray their story's hero/heroine on the front cover like a figurehead for the publication; pointing to the sky or posing with a monumental backdrop. In the photo the hero is the bottle.

Focus and Information Hierarchy

The goal of any designer is to make the layout "easy to read" or "easy to understand". This is vitally important if you're designing a billboard on the side of a highway with readers driving past at high speed.

The expression "information hieraRchy" describes how the elements on a page have levels of focus or emphasis according to the following:

The object's size
The object's position relative to the page or frame or "framal reference" aka "ground"
The object's position relative to other objects on the page
The object's colour
The "nature" of the object; is it type? Is it a photo? Is it engaging artwork? Is it a model wearing a neon-orange bowler hat while hanging from a cliff?
The amount of "white-space" on the page relative to the object.

greek alphabet


Identifying Focus and Hierarchy


Introduction to Design Fundamentals


This lesson introduces you to design concepts that can maximize the effectiveness of your message by making it easier for the public to read and understand.

There are 3 Learning Activities associated with this lesson. Learning Activity 1 (LA 1) , Learning Activity 2 (LA 2) and Learning Activity 3 (LA3).

If you think you already know about this module, test your understanding with this checklist. If you can honestly answer all of them you're ready for the final assessment task. If you're not, simply work through the learning tasks, submitting them for feedback as you go until you feel you're ready.

What is Design?

There's no single word answer, because for one thing Design is a topic that has vast scope. Here's a “Let there be lights in the vault of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark sacred times, and days and years, and let them be lights in the vault of the sky to give light on the earth.” list of Design Disciplines (each topic takes you to that definition).

Wikipedia List of Design Disciplines

Here's a comprehensive list of professional disciplines that operate under the definition of "design". It's a big list:

Business design
aka Enterprise Architecture
New product development
Packaging design
Product design
Service design
Experience design
Game design
Interaction design
Software design
Software development
Software engineering
System design
User experience design
User interface design
Web accessibility
Web design
Book design
Color design
Communication design
Content design
Exhibition design
Graphic design
Information design
Instructional design
Motion graphic design
News design
Production design
Sound design
Theatrical design
Visual communication
Scientific & mathematical
Combinatorial design
Design of experiments
Architectural design
Architectural engineering
Automotive design
Cellular manufacturing
Ceramic and glass design
Design engineer
Environmental design
Fashion design
Floral design
Furniture design
Garden design
Industrial design
Interior design/redesign
Landscape architecture
Mechanical engineering
Sustainable design
Urban design

Web Design/ Multimedia Design

In this qualification we're chiefly concerned with web design, interface design, layout design and typographic design.

What you are trying to achieve with your design is "effective communication"; one of the ways to do this is by adhering to the Principles of Design.

The Principles of Design

Before you jump in and start designing it would help to understand some of the Principles of Design. These aren't like road rules for driving, they're more like guidelines.

Here's a great article that features examples & definitions of the Principles of Design (from a photography perspective but it's universal in application).

The Nokia forums expand on this in the context of mobile devices.

Here's another great resource on Principles of Design from the archives of (visit the 2010 Design Meltdown site in full, it's a great resource for web designers).

The Principles of Design are :

Focus (also known as dominance or emphasis. Focus goes hand-in-hand with clarity)
Proximity (where objects get close to each other)
Balance (where objects "balance each other out", suggesting stability)
Rhythm (also know as repetition)
Flow (see Gutenburg's how the eye tracks a path across your layout)
Unity (when a layout/design/ publication has a common colour/ typeface/ layout/ alignment)
Movement (where objects in a layout appear to be in motion; falling/ colliding/ pushing)
Contrast (colour, scale, style)

Australian National Anthem words

The words for the first verse of the Australian National Anthem are: Australians all let us rejoice, For we are young and free; We've golden soil and wealth for toil; Our home is girt by sea; Our land abounds in nature's gifts; Of beauty rich and rare; In history's page, let every stage Advance Australia Fair In joyful strains then let us sing, Advance Australia Fair.

Sunday 8 May 2011


I thought that I would start my webmaster lear-ning (learning – bad typography as the 'r' letter connects to the 'n' letter, making it look like a 'm' letter) journey from obtaining some useful information that I have gathered before presenting my learning activities for the course module.

Desirable Qualities for a Junior Web Developer working in a Digital Development Studio would consist of:
As in any other field the first requirement is learning the subject. Whether you self study or learn it under guidance of someone is not the issue. Learning and continued learning is the key to knowledge acquisition. A willingness to put your mind and heart into the knowledge learning is must.
You need to keep your eyes and ears open and use every opportunity to sharpen your knowledge and skill as you go.
Many people fret at the name of investment but investment is much more than mere monetary investment. There must be the willingness to invest money, time and effort in helping your business grow in spite of what your immediate results are expected. You must be able to foresee what your business is expected to be like in the future and what does it need to succeed. In business, the weeks may pass without hearing good news, but it’s very important to be poised and invest in your growth.
This is one quality that is key to all others. Zeal to succeed in spite of every hurdle is the force that would keep you moving upward in your business. If you want to make it in the world of affiliate marketing, you must possess to push yourself forward. The ability to push yourself to greater heights will determine what type of future you have.
When you are in a job you have an imposed or forced discipline. When you have your own business you need to create and maintain your own discipline. If you teach yourself to work everyday with all of your heart and soul, you’ll be that much closer to reaching your goals and making your dreams come true.
Attitude matters and determines the success. Never mind the naysayers around you and work in pursuit of your goals. You are the captain of your ship and you are the one steering it towards destiny.
These qualities come inherently to some people and other people have to learn them. What ever is the case , these qualities become guiding light of your affiliate success journey.

  • Employ-ability skill
  • Communication
  • Teamwork
  • Problem Solving
  • Initiative and Enterprise
  • Planning and Organizing
  • Self-Management
  • Learning
  • Technology
  • OHS Compliant
  • Time Management
  • Have Fun and be respectful of/to others
The Client
The client’s role is pretty straightforward, really. They need to tell us what we need to know about their business and markets. When we come back with a design spec, they need to tell us where we got it right and where and how we got it wrong, and help clear up any misunderstanding or miscommunication revealed in the spec. Before we can design a logo that represents their company, we all need to feel comfortable that we understand what the logo should communicate. The design spec serves as a "communication blueprint," identifying critical messages and priorities. When we return with logo options, the client uses the design spec as a basis for evaluating them. That nearly always elevates the conversation above the "can you make the font bigger" discussions. If it doesn’t avoid them altogether, it at least gives you something to pull the discussion back to.
The Copywriter
Copywriters are not always included on a design team, but whenever possible, I like to work with a copywriter from the beginning of a design project. We can coordinate written and visual messages better, and it gives me someone to bounce design ideas off. I’ve learned to welcome criticism from writers at this stage, because it often saves me from going down a design path that doesn’t stick to the design spec. As "word people," writers can discuss concepts and represent their perspectives in ways that can give a designer new insight. And when it comes to client presentations, knowing you’ve been held to agreed upon messages is invaluable. If you’re fortunate, you will also (like me) get to work with a writer who can fix any mistakes you make in working with clients.
The Designer
The designer’s role is to take all the words—questions and answers, explanations, conceptualizations, confusion, clarifications, technical info, artsy-fartsy hyperbole and half-baked ideas—and spin them into visual gold. Something from which people in a client’s market can derive some useful information about the company; something that gives them the assurance that this is a company they should get to know more about. I wish I could explain how that happens

Graphic Art Managers

The following are positions or responsibilities and usually titles, held by experienced graphic designers in related management roles:

Creative Director

Creative directors are in charge of a creative team that produces artwork to be displayed in advertising campaigns, or on products. A creative team can consist of artists (e.g. art directors, graphic designers, illustrators, photographers, copywriters, production artists) and a production staff. Creative directors initiate or inspire creative ideas and make sure that the art works include those ideas to the client's satisfaction. Creative directors usually are promoted from an art director or copywriter position. A creative directors job may also involve responsibilities usually associated with a client representative or a project manager.

Art Director

Art directors make sure that illustrators and production artists produce and complete their work on time and to the creative director or client's satisfaction. Art directors also play a major role in the development of a project by making decisions on the visual elements of the project, and by giving the final say on the selection of models, art, props, colors, and other elements. Art directors need advanced training in graphic design as they often do artwork and designing themselves. However, an art director's time may be consumed doing supervisory and administrative work.

Art Production Manager

Art production managers or traffic managers oversee the production aspect of art to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness. Art production managers supervise artists or advise the supervisors of artists. Creative directors and art directors often assume the role of art production managers, especially when production cost is not a critical concern.

Hands-on Graphic Designers

The following are positions or responsibilities, not necessarily titles, held by art directors and graphic designers#$


Brand identity Developer

Brand identity design is concerned with the visual aspects of a company or organization’s brand or identity. A brand identity design is the visual element that represents how a company wants to be seen; it is the company’s visual identity, and is how a company illustrates its ‘image.’ A company’s brand identity can be represented in terms of design through a unique logo, or signage, and is then often integrated throughout all the elements of a company’s materials such as business cards, stationery, packaging, media advertising, promotions, and more. Brand identity may include logo design. Brand identity development is usually a collaborative effort between creative directors, art directors, copywriters, account managers and the client.

Logo Designer

The job of a logo designer is to provide a new and innovative way to express the key message of a company through an image. Logo designers take the information given to them by the client and work, using their own creativity along with marketing strategy to find an appropriate image that their client can use to represent what they are trying to encourage, sell, or what they are. It is not likely that a company will specialize in logo design or have a position for a designated logo designer. Art directors and graphic designers usually perform logo designs.


Illustrators conceptualize and create illustrations that represent an idea or a story through two-dimensional or three-dimensional images. Illustrators may do drawings for printed materials such as books, magazines, and other publications, or for commercial products such as textiles, packaging, wrapping paper, greeting cards, calendars, stationery, and more. Illustrators use many different media, from pencil and paint to digital formatting, to prepare and create their illustrations. An illustrator consults with clients in order to determine what illustrations will best meet the story they are trying to tell, or what message they are trying to communicate. Illustrating may be a secondary skill requirement of graphic design or a specialty skill of a freelance artist, usually known for a unique style of illustrating. Illustration may be published separately as in fine art. However, illustrations are usually inserted into page layouts for communication design in the context of graphic design professions.

Visual Image Developer

Similar to illustration are other methods of developing images such as photography, 3D modeling, and image editing. Creative professionals in these positions are not usually called illustrators, but are utilized the same way. Photographers are likely to freelance. 3D modelers are likely to be employed for long-term projects. Image editing is usually a secondary skill to either of the above, but may also be a specialty to aid web development, software development, or multimedia development in a job title known as multimedia specialist. Although these skills may require technical knowledge, graphic design skills may be applied as well.

Multimedia Developer

Multimedia developers may come from a graphic design or illustration background and apply those talents to motion, sound, or interactivity. Motion designers are graphic designers for motion. Animators are illustrators for motion. Videographers are photographers for motion. Multimedia developers may also image edit, sound edit, program, or compose multimedia just as multimedia specialists.

Content Developer

Content developer is a generic term used for describing illustrators, visual image developers, and multimedia developers in software and web development. The term has a broader scope that includes non-graphical content as well. A generic name for content that is used in a digital composition are digital assets.

Visual Journalist

Visual Journalists, also known as Info-graphic Artists create information graphics or Info graphics; visual representations of information, data or knowledge. These graphics are used anywhere where information needs to be explained quickly or simply, such as in signs, maps, journalism, technical writing, and education. They are also used extensively as tools by computer scientists, mathematicians, and statisticians to ease the process of developing and communicating conceptual information. They are applied in all aspects of scientific visualization.

Layout Artist

A layout artist deals with the structure and layout of images and text in a pleasing format. This can include magazine work, brochures, flyers, books, CD booklets, posters, and similar formats. For magazines and similar productions, color, typeface, text formatting, graphic layout and more must be considered. Is the chosen typeface good for long term reading, or will the eyes get tired? Does that title typeface fit the feel of the rest of the article? Are the photos arranged in such a way that is pleasing to the eye, and directs the reader in the right flow or direction? These are just some of the questions a layout artist must ask themselves. Page layouts are usually done by art directors, graphic designers, production artists or a combination of those positions.
Entry level layout work is often known as paste up art. Entry level layout graphic designers are often known as production artists.

Interface Designer

Interface designers are graphical user interface (GUI) layout artists. They are employed by multimedia, software, and web development companies. Because GUI elements are interactive, interface design often overlaps interaction design. Because interfaces are not usually composed as single computer files, interface design may require technical understanding, including graphical integration with code. Because interfaces may require hundreds of assets, knowledge of how to automate graphic production may be required. An interface designer may hold the job title of web designer in a web development company.

Web Designer

A web designer's work could be viewed by thousands of people every day. Web designers create the pages, layout, and graphics for web pages, and play a key role in the development of a website. Web designers have the task of creating the look and feel of a website by choosing the style, and by designing attractive graphics, images, and other visual elements, and adapting them for the website’s pages. Web designers also design and develop the navigation tools of a site. Web designers may make decisions regarding what content is included on a web page, where things are placed, and how the aesthetic and continuity is maintained from one screen to the next. All of this involves skill and training in computer graphics, graphic design, and in the latest in computer and web technology.
Depending on the scope of the project, web design may involve collaboration between software engineers and graphic designers. The graphic design of a website may be as simple as a page layout sketch or handling just the graphics in an HTML editor, while the advance coding is done separately by programmers. In other cases, graphic designers may be challenged to become both graphic designer and programmer in the process of web design in positions often known as web masters.

Package Designer

A package designer or packaging technician may utilize technical skills aside from graphic design. Knowledge of cuts, crease, folding, nature and behavior of the packaging material such as paper, corrugated sheet, synthetic or other type of materials may also be required. A customer may see the top/outside of a package at first, but may also be drawn to other package design features. A packaging design may require 3D layout skills in addition to visual communication to consider how well a design works at multiple angles. CAD software applications specifically for packaging design may be utilized

Each of the roles above are briefly explained of what their responsibilities are.

Going Freelance: The Pros & Cons With “Top Web Designers”

Making the choice to go freelance (or independent as I prefer to call it) is a tough choice, I wish I had more knowledge about the pros vs cons when I made the decision to work independently.
Many of us are big fans of top web designers and their work. Throughout the years these guys published many tutorials, websites, and scripts to help designers and developers improve their skills. Today, we will sit down with them and get to know their experience about going freelance.
  1. What is the one thing you like and hate most about working “independently” as opposed to working “in-house”?
  2. The absolute best thing about working independently is that I get to decide how, when, and where to do things. I’ve got to stick to client deadlines, but if I’m sensible about planning, I can swap projects around to suit me, and I can take time out whenever I want if I need to do something non work-related. I can work on the road, which allows me to do a lot of traveling, and I can do a variety of things – designing, illustrating, writing, speaking – all under the umbrella of work. And if I want to take a few weeks off to record a new album or design myself a new personal site, I can. It’s brilliant!

    The downside of independent working is that you’re solely responsible for the way a project turns out, and it can often be hard to juggle the actual design work with things like project managing, client lasing, and all of the other stuff that comes with being self-employed. Plus it can sometimes be lonely; I miss the banter I had when I was working in-house with a bunch of other people. But these are small things; for me, the benefits far outweigh the drawbacks. I can’t see myself going back to full-time employment any time soon.

Liam McKay of We Function

I think the thing that I prefer most, is that I certainly feel more valued, you get a lot more thanks, a lot more feedback and a more direct feel of responsibility for a good project. It’s not to say that there aren’t companies out there that don’t do a good job of making their employer feel valued. It’s just there’s definitely a bigger sense of value & appreciation attached to work when you are working directly for yourself and you have more of an involvement in the project.
What I like least about working independently is definitely the whole organization side of business. Answering emails, sending invoices, keeping track of payments etc isn’t really where I thrive. It’s not that it’s too difficult, there are a lot of tools to help speed up loads of these tasks, it’s just easy to go into freelancing thinking that all you’re going to be doing is designing, and forget about the things that go with it behind the scenes. But having said that I’ve realized now how important that side of work is, and am doing a lot better than I was.

Steve Snell of VandelayDesign

All of my experience in web design has come from learning on my own through books and tutorials, personal projects, work for friends and family, and working independently for clients. I’ve never worked for a design firm so it’s hard for me to compare the two. However, I have had several years of employment in other industries, and I think in many situations the frustrations are similar. I prefer working independently because I can choose what I want to do and who I want to work with (provided I have the right opportunities and the income potential to make it work). If I’m talking to a potential client and I don’t think it is the right fit, I can just be up front and recommend someone else to them. It saves me headaches, allows me to spend time in more efficient ways, and hopefully helps the client too. Likewise, if there is a client that I really want to work with, I have the flexibility to try and make that happen. There’s no boss to tell me what I have to charge and what clients I have to work with.

On the other hand, I’d say the negative is that I’m limited to what I’m able to accomplish on my own. There’s no team of people with different and complementary sets of skills. Outsourcing is always an option, but without the right relationship and organization it’s not really comparable to a strong team of employees from the same company.

Chris Coyier of CSS-Tricks

I don’t actually work “independently” per Se, but I do work from home. The lifestyle is the best part. Not having a commute saves loads of time, stress, and gas money! I like intertwining the daily chores of life with my workday as a way to take a break and refresh. Office folks need to dedicate so much of their precious spare time to things like laundry and dishes, where I can take care of that stuff while getting up to stretch my legs. The time this saves is amazing and adds up to loads of truly “free” time.

Danny Outlaw of OutLawDesignBlog

The one thing I like most about working from home has to be the ability to work my own hours. If I want to stay up until 5 in the morning playing Halo 3 online, it’s not a big deal. If I want to leave work in the middle of the day and go work at the coffee shop via laptop, I can do that.

On the flip side, the thing I dislike the most of working from home, is working from home. Sometimes its easy to get cabin fever from working from home all day everyday.
Above are some web design individuals and their outlook on the advantages and disadvantages of going solo in web design and development.

What are the advantages and disadvantages of working within a team in an office environment?


1.sharing of ideas
2.motivational - not wanting to let the team down. Shared targets and aims for the team to meet.
3.Employees needs - employees have social needs, go to work not just for the money but for human contact with workmates etc. Employees can therefore be happier in a team.
4. support e.g. more experienced members can help, mentor and develop the less experienced members.


1. not all work is suited to working in a team - there are some one man tasks.
2. Teams can cause conflicts e.g personality clashes between members.
3. The contribution of quieter members of the team can get crowded out by members with larger personalities. Some good ideas can get lost this way.
4. Team mentality. Workers start to identify just with their own team and this harms relationships between different teams and departments and harms communication in the organization.
Talent can be expressed in many ways and web designing has given a new shift to the artists and animators. The subtle art of creating a web site may seem simple and revolving purely around know-how and technical skills. A good web designer keeps a host of other considerations in mind when designing a site. Some of these defy what might seem like common sense but they are the marks of a good web designer. A mark of some good web designers has been noticeable as they have been able to execute the work to client's satisfaction. Professional web designers have contributed to the success of the company too. The subtle art of creating a web site may seem simple and revolving purely around know-how and technical skills. But a good web designer keeps a host of other considerations in mind when designing a site. Some of these defy what might seem like common sense but they are the marks of a good web designer.

A simple layout ensures that the text simply rolls from the top to the bottom without forcing the reader to move their eyes everywhere.
Doing so also ensures that the content is easy to find instead of having to be found. In the past many web designers tried to go for overly complicated sites that caused key information to be missed by the viewer. A strong web designer should be able to create an aesthetically functional website that can attract visitors on the site. He should keep in mind the important elements, one, the homepage - this is the interface of the site. It creates an immediate impression on visitors. It should be clean, free of clutter, professional and attractive. It should also not be too flashy so as not to scare away visitors. Secondly, the message should give people a reason to stay on the site, be it a business or personal website. 
Know that they should be able to offer something, be it information, entertainment, advice and help with a problem, opportunities to contact similar minded people or links to useful sites.

Designing a website is an art in itself. Having an artistic design is not just about putting image and multimedia files. Miami web designers create designs to suit search engine needs, making the site attractive and catchy. A good web designer remembers these points while designing a website in order to make it more striking and attractive.

Australian Interactive Media Industry Association

The Australian Interactive Media Industry Association or AIMIA is the peak Australian body representing the Interactive Media and Digital Content sectors in Australia.
AIMIA membership comprises individuals (more than 3,000) and organizations (more than 300). Members range from Australia's top Interactive Media companies including the ABC, Sensis, Yahoo!7, BigPond, Foxtel, Disney Australia, News Digital Media, ninemsn and Fairfax Digital to the country's best known interactive advertising, mobile content, web development, games design, and special effects companies. Members also include developers, creators, producers, investors, service providers, educational institutions and students.

Project Manager
Sound Effects
Navigation Designer
Video Producer
Picture Editor
Director Of Photography
Technical Director
Sound Editor
2D Graphic Production Personnel
Music Composer
Other Technical Staff
Other Specialist Staff

  • Develop and extend critical and creative thinking skills
  • Work effectively in the screen and media industries
  • Participate in OHS processes
  • Produce and prepare photo images
  • Create 3D digital models
  • Produce drawings to represent and communicate the concept
  • Prepare audio assets
  • Implement copyright arrangements
  • Maintain interactive content
  • Use advanced features of computer applications
  • Collect and organize content for broadcast or publication
  • Follow a design process
  • Create 2D digital animations
  • Write content for a range of media
  • Explore and apply the creative design process to 2D forms
  • Author interactive sequences
  • Prepare video assets
  • Create visual design components

These links above have massive resources such as tutorials and other items which are very helpful.

I would keep up to date with industry trends by subscribing to popular Interactive digital media sites, searching the internet for updates and be in tune with Adobe.
Sites of interests:

Employ-ability Skills
  • Communication - Having good communications skills and interacting with others.
    "[Do not dwell in the past, do not dream of the future, FOCUS i concentrate the mind on the present moment.]" aka L♂VEBANDIT
  • Teamwork - Sharing the workload with others and offering support when required.
  • Problem Solving - Identifying problem areas and bringing attention to detail.
  • Initiative and Enterprise- Evaluating, Generating and developing ideas for designs that specifications.
  • Planning and Organizing- Planning and managing products.
  • Self-management- Following OHS policy and compliance.
  • Learning- Keep up to date with industry standards, practices, developments and trends.
  • Technology- Keep up to date with all graphics and authoring software.

Design and

Design and
Interactive Digital Media

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